Read e-book online Animal Sciences. A-Crep PDF

By Allan B. Cobb

ISBN-10: 0028655575

ISBN-13: 9780028655574

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The difference is even more dramatic when human embryos are compared to adults. The figure above shows the relative proportions of a human male at various stages of growth, scaled to the same total height. Allometric growth in the human male. Redrawn from Scott Gilbert, 1998. A general equation expressing the fundamental relationship of allometric growth is y ϭ axk in which y is the size of one organ; x is the size of another; a is a constant; and k is known as the growth ratio. Mathematical tools developed by allometrists have allowed a thorough description of the differential growth of the different parts of an organism.

The currency of natural selection is offspring. Any anatomical, physiological, or behavioral trait that enhances an individual’s ability to produce more offspring will be favored, and the trait will be selected regardless of the effects on others. For example, seagulls sometimes steal food from nesting neighbors to feed themselves and their chicks. This behavior clearly increases the fitness of the actor while natural selection the process by which organisms best suited to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce Social Interactions that can occur between animals of the same species.

Scientific American 272, no. 6 (1995): 98–103. , and John Alcock. Exploring Animal Behavior: Readings from American Scientist, 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1998. Wilson, Edward O. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975. Amphibia Amphibia is one of the five major classes of vertebrates. There are three orders in the amphibia group, two of which are widely familiar, frogs (Anura) and salamanders (Caudata), and one of which is less well-known, the tropical caecilians (Gymnophiona).

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Animal Sciences. A-Crep by Allan B. Cobb

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