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By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0080571697

ISBN-13: 9780080571690

ISBN-10: 0121619532

ISBN-13: 9780121619534

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T h e y come from an experiment by Garcia and Koelling (1966; see also Domjan, 1982, for confirmation and extension of the results) in which rats were allowed to drink a saccharin-flavored solution while a light and a noise were being presented. Half the subjects then received a nausea-inducing injection as the U S , the others experienced a shock U S . In a test phase, animals in the former group showed an aversion to saccharin but were quite 2 Pavlovian Conditioning 35 Β 300 h • Flavor test ^ Auditory-visual c Έ ι 200 Z¡ 100 CO Shock I LiCI FIGURE 7 Suppression of drinking on test w i t h flavored water or water associated w i t h auditory and visual cues in rats given shock or a nausea-inducing injection in training.

45 46 Anthony Dickinson According to a Pavlovian account, by contrast, it is the predictive relation­ ship between the stimulus of the bowl and food that is crucial; once estab­ hshed as signal for food, the sight of the bowl elicits approach irrespective of the actual consequences of this action. While these t w o accounts cannot be separated in a normal, stable environment, the extent to which the chick can adapt to changes in the causal structure of the environment depends on which relation controls the behavior.

I N T R O D U C T I O N Instrumental behavior refers to those actions whose acquisition and mainte­ nance depend on their consequences for the animal or, in others words, on the fact that the action is instrumental in causing some outcome. T h e func­ tional significance of the capacity for instrumental action is so obvious as to require little comment; it is this capacity that allows us and other animals to learn to control our environment in the service of our needs and desires. Consider a purely Pavlovian animal equipped only with the capacity to detect and learn about the predictive relations between signals and i m p o r ­ tant events in the world, but not about the contingencies between its actions and their consequences.

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Animal Learning and Cognition by N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)

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