By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)
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T h e y come from an experiment by Garcia and Koelling (1966; see also Domjan, 1982, for confirmation and extension of the results) in which rats were allowed to drink a saccharin-flavored solution while a light and a noise were being presented. Half the subjects then received a nausea-inducing injection as the U S , the others experienced a shock U S . In a test phase, animals in the former group showed an aversion to saccharin but were quite 2 Pavlovian Conditioning 35 Β 300 h • Flavor test ^ Auditory-visual c Έ ι 200 Z¡ 100 CO Shock I LiCI FIGURE 7 Suppression of drinking on test w i t h flavored water or water associated w i t h auditory and visual cues in rats given shock or a nausea-inducing injection in training.
45 46 Anthony Dickinson According to a Pavlovian account, by contrast, it is the predictive relation ship between the stimulus of the bowl and food that is crucial; once estab hshed as signal for food, the sight of the bowl elicits approach irrespective of the actual consequences of this action. While these t w o accounts cannot be separated in a normal, stable environment, the extent to which the chick can adapt to changes in the causal structure of the environment depends on which relation controls the behavior.
I N T R O D U C T I O N Instrumental behavior refers to those actions whose acquisition and mainte nance depend on their consequences for the animal or, in others words, on the fact that the action is instrumental in causing some outcome. T h e func tional significance of the capacity for instrumental action is so obvious as to require little comment; it is this capacity that allows us and other animals to learn to control our environment in the service of our needs and desires. Consider a purely Pavlovian animal equipped only with the capacity to detect and learn about the predictive relations between signals and i m p o r tant events in the world, but not about the contingencies between its actions and their consequences.
Animal Learning and Cognition by N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)