By R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon
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Extra resources for Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
The measurable voltage difference is the membrane potential. The size of the membrane potential varies among types of cells from −10 mV (millivolts) to −100 mV. In many nerve and muscle cells, it is about −85 mV. This means that the inside of the membrane is 85 mV more negative than the outside. The concentrations of various cations and anions throughout the intracellular and extracellular fluids are maintained relatively constant in normal, healthy animals.
Some common and important disaccharides are sucrose, or table sugar (glucose + fructose); lactose, or milk sugar (glucose + galactose); and maltose (glucose + glucose). Multiple molecules of glucose can be linked (polymerized) to form a polysaccharide, glycogen. Two major sites of glycogen synthesis are the liver and skeletal muscle. In the liver, the stored glycogen can be broken down to glucose and metabolized by liver cells or secreted as glucose into the blood. In skeletal muscle, glycogen stores are an immediate source of energy, but this glycogen cannot be a source of glucose for release into the blood.
For example, the serum albumin in the blood plasma of horses is different from that in the plasma of cattle and sheep. In cattle, the protein hormone insulin is slightly different from that in swine. Such variable proteins may still function in a different species, though usually at levels below that of the naturally occurring form of the molecule. Note: Throughout the text, clinical extracts are set in blue type. These are examples of the application of basic anatomy and/or physiology in clinical settings.
Anatomy and physiology of farm animals by R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon