By Stefanie Toth
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Dell' Estetica stessa resterebbe inspiegabile los angeles complessità di impostazione e di struttura e los angeles ricchezza straordinaria, ma rigorosamente articolata, delle sue annotazioni storico-culturali, letterarie, di tecnica artistica architettonica, scultorea e pittorica, insomma los angeles stupefacente mole di contenuto padroneggiata da Hegel, ove non si tenesse conto di due fondamentali elementi che hanno concorso alla sua genesi: il profondo interesse e le larghissime conoscenze circa le questioni dell'arte dimostrate e acquisite da Hegel durante tutto l' arco della sua attività, e il rigoroso criterio unitario, organico-strutturale e sistematico di cui Hegel dà prova anche qui, are available ognuno dei campi del sapere da lui indagati.
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25 The paintings of Lascaux, Old Kingdom Egypt, and Byzantium, the Kwakiutl bird, and the 1910 Vollard each belong to a different system; each resembles its subject in respects determined by its system. No picture is seen with an innocent eye, because we come to pictures primed with beliefs, expectations, and attitudes about systems of representation. Gombrich called these beliefs the ‘mental set’ or ‘cognitive schema’ making up the ‘beholder’s share’ in interpreting pictures. Identifying what any given picture represents involves recognizing its similarity to its subject in respects associated with its system of representation.
For a related use of the private-language argument to critique the view that object recognition consists in matching mental images, see Evans, Varieties of Reference, 289–96. 22 Pictures as Perceptual by Tolstoy), pictures represent because they replicate in their viewers the same experiences as their makers enjoyed. But, as Wittgenstein would have insisted, the criteria for understanding a picture cannot be privately assessable. A viewer understands a picture not because it triggers the ‘right’ experience, but because she is able to correctly identify its subject, where correct identiﬁcation is assessed by performance.
28 But how can we identify the picture as a caricature in the ﬁrst place, without ﬁrst seeing that it represents a woman with an immense nose? The problem is that if detecting a picture’s resemblance to its subject depends on ascertaining its system, and if ascertaining its system requires us to identify what it represents and how, then a picture’s resemblance to its subject is representation-dependent. Relativizing resemblance to system of representation fails to meet the independence challenge.
Aesthetics of Computer Games for Virtual Environments by Stefanie Toth