By Tara Chand and Ravi Prakash
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Extra resources for Advanced Education Psychology
In order to plan a procedure for inculcating certain desired behaviour in a child, certain specific questions need to be answered: (1) What behaviour is to be established? (2) What reinforcers are available? (3) What responses are available? (4) How can reinforcements be most efficiently scheduled? Behaviour to be Established To teach efficiently the first job of a teacher is to determine carefully just what it is he plans to teach at a specific time. A teacher is the architect and builder of behaviours.
Skinner's psychology implies a strictly naturalistic determinism. He notes that a scientific conception of human behaviour dictates one practice and a philosophy of personal freedom another; and that a scientific conception of human behaviour entails the acceptance of an assumption of determinism. Determinism means that behaviour is caused, and that the behaviour which appears is the only kind which could have appeared. Skinner emphasizes that the same type of determinism which is commonly accepted as applying to machines applies equally to human beings.
The experimenter, keeping his eye on the scale, quickly opens the food tray whenever the bird's head rises above the established line. "we observe an immediate change in the frequency with which the head crosses the line. We also observe, and this is of some importance theoretically, that higher lines are now being crossed. We may advance almost immediately to a higher line in determining when food is to be presented. " By training two pigeons separately to do their parts in a total performance, Skinner has constructed a social scene within which competition is exemplified by two pigeons playing a modified game of ping-pong.
Advanced Education Psychology by Tara Chand and Ravi Prakash