Denise L. Smith's Advanced cardiovascular exercise physiology PDF

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Blood flow to critical areas, such as the cerebral circulation, is maintained, while areas that require additional blood flow are enhanced, such as the coronary and skeletal muscle beds. In order to maintain or enhance blood flow to some vascular beds, other regions, such as the renal and splanchnic circulations, receive less blood flow. Changing the distribution of the cardiac output is accomplished primarily through a change in the diameter of the resistance vessels (arterioles) supplying these vascular beds.

Specifically, the thin filaments slide into the spaces between the thick filaments, causing the I-band to shorten while the A-band remains unchanged. Role of Calcium Calcium plays a critical role in cardiac muscle contraction because it regulates the position of tropomyosin. In the resting state, tropomyosin blocks the active site on actin, and the myosin heads cannot form a cross-bridge with actin. A rise in intracellular calcium concentration, however, causes the active sites on actin to become exposed, allowing cross-bridge formation to occur.

5 and the following discussion. An action potential in the sarcolemma is spread cell to cell via gap junctions. 5, a). 5, b). 5, c). These protein channels have T-shaped tubes in the interior that appear to be responsible for the release of calcium from the SR. 5, d). 5, e), which is bound to another regulatory protein, tropomysin, on the thin filaments. The binding of calcium to troponin causes troponin to undergo a configurational change and pulls tropomyosin deeper into the groove along the actin strand and off of the active site on actin.

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Advanced cardiovascular exercise physiology by Denise L. Smith

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