By John P. LeDonne
This is often the 1st complete exam of the Russian ruling elite and its political associations in the course of a big interval of kingdom development, from the emergence of Russia at the level of worldwide politics round 1700 to the consolidation of its place after the victory over Napoleon. rather than concentrating on the nice rulers of the period--Peter, Catherine, and Alexander--the paintings examines the the Aristocracy which on my own can make their strength potent. LeDonne not just supplies an entire chronological account of the advance of bureaucratic, army, financial, and political associations in Russia in this interval, but additionally skillfully analyzes the ways that neighborhood corporations and the ruling classification exercised keep an eye on and shared energy with absolutely the monarchs.
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Additional info for Absolutism and Ruling Class: The Formation of the Russian Political Order, 1700-1825
This was forbidden in May 1737 and May 1742, but the shortage of clerks made these prohibitions a dead letter: only four of thirty-one gubernia secretaries in 1752 were of noble origin; the others were former raznochintsy,39 that ill-defined social pool in which sons of priests, old soldiers, emancipated serfs, and whoever could not fit into the established social categories found the minimal sense of a common identity. The addition of stages through which clerks had to pass before their promotion to secretarial ranks was an attempt less to "bureaucratize" the clerical staffs than to ease the pressure of lower-class elements to enter the nobility.
Arakcheev's father did not have the funds to register his son in the Corps of Cadets, but its director waived the requirement and introduced the future favorite into the powerful Saltykov clan. Speranskii, a priest's son, owed his meteoric rise to the patronage of the Kurakins. 65 Civilian appointments were made by the Senate in general assembly and after 1811 largely by ministers, military appointments by the College, then Ministry of War, except those in grade six and above, made by the ruler on the recommendation of the Senate or ministers or at his or her discretion.
It was not until 1818 that gubernia marshals were raised to grade five. Governors, as a rule, were majors general. The assembly chose two candidates for gubernia marshal; the governor confirmed one of them in office. In 1794, for example, the 170 nobles of the Vladimir assembly voted 164 to 6 in favor of Brigadier Taneev and 101 to 69 in favor of Major Alenin, both uezd marshals. Taneev was confirmed and remained uezd marshal as well. 20 The marshals' responsibilities were never spelled out in detail, and Kochubei complained in 1814 that there were too many misunderstandings between them and the governors, who accused the marshals of encroaching upon their prerogatives.
Absolutism and Ruling Class: The Formation of the Russian Political Order, 1700-1825 by John P. LeDonne