By George A. Cioffi, MD
This part underwent significant revision for the 2008-2009 edition.Topics mentioned contain the epidemiologic elements of glaucoma; hereditary and genetic elements; intraocular strain and aqueous humor dynamics; scientific assessment; clinical administration of and surgical remedy for glaucoma. This variation includes up to date tables and revised photographs, in addition to a variety of new pictures illustrating either illness entities and surgical innovations.
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Extra info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 10: Glaucoma (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
33 34 . Glaucoma Refraction Neutralizing any refractive error is crucial for accurate perimetry with most perimeters, and the clinician should understand how the patient's refractive state affects the diagnosis. Hyperopic eyes are at increased risk of angle-closure glaucoma and generally have smaller discs. Myopia is associated with disc morphologies that can be clinically confused with glaucoma, and myopic eyes are at increased risk of pigment dispersion. Whether myopic eyes have increased risk of open-angle glaucoma remains a controversial issue.
The ciliary processes provide a large surface area for secretion. Aqueous humor formation and secretion into the posterior chamber result from . active secretion, which takes place in the double-layered . ultrafiltration . simple diffusion ciliary epithelium Active secretion, or transport, consumes energy to move substances against an electrochemical gradient and is independent of pressure. The identity of the precise ion or ions transported is not known, but sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate are involved.
Time of day heartbeat respiration exercise fluid intake systemic medications topical medications Alcohol consumption results in a transient decrease in lOP. In most studies, caffeine has not shown an appreciable effect on lOP. Cannabis decreases lOP but has not been proven clinically useful because of its short duration of action and poor side effect profile. rop is higher when an individual is recumbent rather than upright, predominantly because of an increase in the episcleral venous pressure.
2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 10: Glaucoma (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009) by George A. Cioffi, MD